Notes may be substantive or explanatory or may identify sources, according to where they are used and what information needs to be conveyed. APA journals require reference lists, not bibliographies. References in APA publications are cited in text with an author-date citation system and are listed alphabetically in the References section in APA style.
One Work by Multiple Authors
When a work has two authors, always cite both names every time the reference occurs in text.
When a work has three, four, or five authors, cite all authors the first time the reference occurs; in subsequent citations, include only the surname of the first author followed by et al. ( not italicized and with a period after “al”) and the year if it is the first citation of the reference within a paragraph:
Wasserstein, Zappulla, Rosen, Gerstman, and Rock (1994) found [Use as first citation in text.]
Wasserstein et al. (1994) found [Use as subsequent first citation per paragraph thereafter.]
Wasserstein et al. found [Omit year from subsequent citations after first citation within a paragraph.]
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (1994). Title of article. Title of Periodical xx, xxx-xxx.
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (2000). Title of article. Title of Periodical, xx, xxx-xxx. (Retrieved month day, year, from source.)
Author, A. A. (2000). Title of work. Retrieved month day, year, from source.
Kandel, E.R., & Squire, L.R. (2000, November 10) Neuroscience: Breaking down scientific barriers to the study of brain and mind. Science, 290, 1113-1120.
(Give the date shown on the publication—month for monthlies or month and day for weeklies. Give the volume number.)
Daily newspaper article, no author
New drug appears to sharply cut risk of death from heart failure. (1993, July 15). The Washington Post, p. A12. (Alphabetize works with no author by the first significant word in the title. In text, use a short title for the parenthetical citation: ("New Drug," 1993). Precede page numbers for newspaper articles with p. or pp.
Daily newspaper article, discontinuous pages
Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic, so¬cial status. The Washington Post, pp. Al, A4. (If an article appears on discontinuous pages, give all page num¬bers, and separate the numbers with a comma e.g., pp. Bl, B3, B5-B7).
Weekly newspaper article, letter to the editor
Berkowitz, A. D. (2000, November 24). How to tackle the problem of student drinking [Letter to the editor]. The Chronicle of Higher Education, p. B20. Elements of a reference to an entire book
Beck, C. A. J., & Sales, B. D. (2001). Family mediation: Facts, myths, and future prospects. Washington, DC: America
Book, third edition, Jr. in name
Mitchell, T. R, & Larson, J. R, Jr. (1987). People in organizations: An introduction to organizational behavior (3rd ed.). New York : McGraw-Hill.
Book, group author (government agency) as publisher
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (1991). Estimated resident popu lation by age and sex in statistical local areas. New South Walas , June 1990 (No. 3209.1). Canberra , Australian Capital Territory : Author.
Gibbs, J. T., & Huang, L. N. (Eds.). (1991). Children of color: Psy¬chological interventions with minority youth. San Fran¬cisco: Jossey-Bass.
Book, no author or editor
Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993). Spring¬field, MA: Merriam-Webster. (In text, use a few words of the title, or the whole title if it is short, in place of an author name in the citation: (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993).
Book, revised edition
Rosenthal, R. (1987). Meta-analytic procedures for social re search (Rev. ed.). Newbury Park , CA : Sage.
APA publishes references in a hanging indent format
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